The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the southeast of Central Asia in the basin of the Aral Sea and does not have access to the sea. The country’s territory covers 142,326 km2. Its state border stretches from west to east for 700 km and from north to south for 350 km. It shares its western and northern borders with the Republics of Uzbekistan (approximately 1,332.9 km) and Kyrgyzstan (approximately 987 km), to the south with Afghanistan (approximately 1,344.15 km), and to the east with China (approximately 494.95 km).
According to its administrative division, the Republic of Tajikistan consists of the capital city Dushanbe, the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region (GBAO), the Sughd Region, the Khatlon Region, and the Districts of Republican Subordination (DRS).
Tajikistan is a mountainous country with elevations ranging from 300 to 7,495 m above sea level. Approximately 93% of its territory is covered by mountains, which includes some of the world’s highest mountain systems. In the North lies the Fergana Valley, while in the Northwest and central parts, there are the Turkestan, Zeravshan, Gissar, and Alai Mountain ranges. In the Southeast are the Pamir Mountains, which includes Mount Somoni, which stands at 7,495 m. The Southwestern part of the country consists of lowlands, including the Vakhsh and Gissar valleys.
Tajikistan has a continental climate and is located in the northernmost part of the subtropical zone. The climate in the country is characterized by sunshine, dry air, and low cloud cover. Air temperatures exhibit significant daily and seasonal fluctuations. The complexity of the terrain and the variety of elevations contribute to significant climatic differences between different regions.
In the mountains of Tajikistan, depending on the elevation, the climate can be moderately warm, temperate, or cold. In the valleys and foothill plains, the average temperature in July ranges from +23 to +30 degrees Celsius, while in January, it varies from -1 to +3 degrees Celsius. Annual precipitation in these areas typically ranges from 150 to 300 mm. As of January 1, 2023, the population of the country was approximately 10.08 million people. Tajikistan is home to representatives of many nations and ethnicities. More than 70% of the country’s population resides in rural areas. The population growth rate in the country averages about 2.2% per year. The official language is Tajik (Farsi with Cyrillic script), and the interethnic communication language is Russian.